Mar 022012


One of the curiosities of Spain is the seeming denial by the Spanish of the past existence of the Moors in Spain. Certainly, much is made of the ‘heroic’ Christian Reconquista, but rarely is the Moorish invasion of Spain looked upon as having provided any intrinsic benefit.  In fact, apart from a few scintillating buildings, such as the Alhambra and the Cordoba Mezquita, it would be easy to imagine that, during their 780 years presence, the Moors contributed nothing of consequence to Spain.

In fact, the Moors in Spain had a profound influence not just upon Spain but the whole of Western Europe.  Indeed, it has been said that they laid the foundations of the Renaissance that brought Europe out of the intellectual and physical gloom of the Middle Ages.

In the 10th Century Cordoba, for example, was not just the capital of Al Andalus (Moorish Spain) but also one of the most important cities in the world, rivalling Baghdad and Constantinople.  It boasted a population of 500,000 (200,000 more than now) and had street lighting, fifty hospitals (with running water!), three hundred public baths, five hundred mosques and seventy libraries – one of which held some 500,000 books.  All of this, at a time when London had a largely illiterate population of around 20,000 and had forgotten the technical advances of the Romans some 600 hundred years beforehand.

More importantly, the Moors brought enormous learning to Spain which, over the coming centuries, would percolate through to the rest of Europe.  In fact, it was the intellectual achievements of the Moors in Spain that were to have a lasting effect, well beyond their more prosaic contributions towards construction, irrigation systems and agriculture.  Indeed three of the greatest thinkers of the Middle Ages emerged from Moorish Spain: Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Ibn Arabi and the Jew Maimonides.

Strange though it may seem now, Islam actively promoted learning and scholarship during its Golden Age (750 – 1258) with rulers across the Arab world vying with each other to develop and patronise great centres of learning.  This was totally consistent with the teaching of the founder of Islam, Mohammad, who believed that ‘the scholar’s ink is holier than the martyr’s blood’ and that ‘seeking knowledge is required of every Muslim’.

All the King’s Men – democracy in Spain          Big Bang – the birth of Modern Spain

So dynamic was Islam during its Golden Age, that Arabic became both the international language of scholarship and the language into which original, and often ancient and nearly forgotten, manuscripts in Greek, Latin, ancient Egyptian and Chinese were translated.  The vast body of work created was of the first importance, as it preserved ideas and thoughts from previous ages and amalgamated them into a form capable of rigorous study.  In turn, this nurtured an environment that generated great intellectuals, who were able to expand upon a range of vital matters from philosophy to astronomy through to medicine, the development of higher mathematics, navigation and dramatically new farming techniques.

The Umayyad Moorish rulers of Spain ardently wanted their Al Andalus possessions to equal that of Baghdad in both splendour and learning and, in Cordoba, actively sought out and patronised scholarship.  By the time Abd al-Rahman III had established a formal Caliphate, Cordoba had become a magnet for scholars from both the East and Western Europe, irrespective of religion.   This tradition reached its apogee during the reign of his son Al Hakim, before the Umayyad dynasty collapsed and Al Andalus descended into anarchy.

However, by good fortune, the libraries of Toledo, in particular, survived the conquest of that city by the Christian King Alfonso VI in 1085 and Toledo quickly became a European centre for the translation of Arabic texts into Latin – the universal, educated language of Western Europe.  Under some enlightened rulers, most notably Alfonso X (The Wise), the scientific and philosophical works of the Moors were translated and their knowledge dispersed around Europe.

One of the most influential Moors was the philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes) who was born in Cordoba.  He translated the largely lost works of Aristotle (perhaps the greatest thinker the world has known and someone committed to logic and intellectual rigour) whilst commenting upon the texts.  These had a lasting effect upon Western philosophy, were taught in universities for the next four hundred years and were highly commended by St Thomas Aquinas himself.

Meanwhile, an almost contemporaneous philosopher, Ibn Arabi, born in Murcia was to have a possibly greater impact on the Muslim world.  A prolific writer of some 800 texts, Ibn Arabi was a radical thinker and teacher who is still revered today for his articulation and development of Sufism, the Islamic tradition of mysticism.

Finally, in this hot-house time for philosophers, Moses Maimonides, a Jew from Cordoba was writing seminal works on Jewish philosophy, law and ethics.  So influential were his writings that even today he is considered one of the foremost Rabbi’s and thinkers of the Jewish religion.  Somehow, at the same time, he also managed to rise to such pre-eminence as a doctor that he was also considered to be the greatest medical practitioner of his era.

El Cid – Spanish national hero and extraordinary soldier          The Borgias – either Caesar or nothing

But, of course, the Moors in Spain did not just support great translators and developers of ideas and cerebral concepts.  Moorish Spain was nothing if not diverse and produced a range of important practical advances, particularly in the field of medicine.  Spurred on by Mohammad’s order to: ‘make use of medical treatment, for Allah has not made a disease without appointing a remedy for it…’ a real urgency to improve medical care occurred throughout Muslim controlled territories.

In Spain, the ‘father of modern surgery’, Abu al-Quasim (Al Zahrawi), was born in Cordoba.  During a practice that lasted fifty years, he developed a range of innovative and precise surgical instruments, whilst writing a text book that was to be a cornerstone of Western medical training for the next 500 years.

Around the same time Ibn Zuhr (Avensoar) 1091 – 1161, from Seville, was practising as one of the greatest physicians of the Middle Ages and using inhaled anaesthetics on his patients.  He was the first person to describe diseases caused by parasites, was an expert in anatomy and wrote books that, when translated into Latin, were used until the eighteenth century.  Meanwhile, al-Baytar (died 1248) wrote authoritatively on drugs and medicinal plants, al-Nafis (1213 – 1288) was the first to discover the pulmonary circulation of blood and Ibn Hasim tackled medical ethics and hygiene (a concept virtually unknown in Western Europe).

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The Moors in Spain were also famous as astronomers and mathematicians.  Indeed, algebra comes from the Arabic al-jabr and the previously unknown, and critically important, Eastern concept of zero (probably originating from Babylonia) was introduced to Europe via Spain.  Certainly, the Moors had a keen interest in mathematics and in al-Zarquali (Arzachel) from Toledo they produced a man of prodigious gifts who contributed to the Toledan Tables (a compilation of astronomical data).  He also developed a flat astrolabe, precision astronomical instruments and compiled tables of latitude and longitude.

The Moors scientific curiosity had even extended to flight with the polymath Ibn Firnas making the first scientific attempt to fly, in a controlled manner, in 875.  This evidently worked, although the landing was less successful.

Of more practical daily use, was the introduction by the Moors, into Spain, of new food crops such as rice, hard wheat, cotton, oranges, lemons, sugar and cotton.  Importantly, along with these foodstuffs came an intimate knowledge of irrigation.  This was complemented by sophisticated metalworking and weaving techniques and complex interior design skills that took buildings to new heights of intensive and intricate decoration.  Paper making was also brought to Spain, allowing the growth of books and, thereby, the accurate preservation and dispersal of knowledge – with Xativa, in Valencia, having the first paper factory in Europe.

Of course, now, much of what the Moors in Spain achieved has been lost in time and largely appears to be restricted to a few ostentatiously gorgeous buildings.  However, we still meet traces of the Moors in the language of Spain, as it is peppered with Moorish words.  Hola derives, from the Middle Eastern greeting of ‘Allah’, Ojala from ‘in sha’Allah’, Madrid was Majrit (water channel) and Beni, which is used in many place names, is Moorish for ‘son of’.  Perhaps, they should act as daily reminders of the past importance of Moorish influence and make us a little more tolerant of Islam’s current dangerously hysterical intellectual insecurity.

Because the Moors were important and contributed greatly, ironically, to the development of Christian civilisation in Western Europe.  In the Dark Ages, when Europe had descended into medieval ignorance, it was the Moors who kept alive the lost philosophy and analytical powers of reasoning of the Greeks, together with the learning of ancient civilisations.  They preserved this knowledge and, through their burning desire for scholarship and advancement, greatly improved upon what was then known, across multifarious spectrums.  Accidentally, though it was, they kept alive the flame of Western progress when it was most in danger of being extinguished.  It was a flame that was, during the Renaissance, to explode the West to the forefront of world civilisation.

Nick Snelling


711   Moors cross into Spain. Tariq ibn-Ziyad brings Moorish army
Moors defeat last Visigoth King (Roderick 1 at Battle of Rio Barbate)
719   Moors control almost all of Spain and their control reaches to the Pyrenees
732   Moors defeated by Charles Martel at Poitiers in France – the limit of their northern advance
750 – 1258 The Golden Age of Islam
756    Abd al-Rahman I (Umayyad prince from Syria) makes Cordoba the capital of Al Andalus
912 – 961 Reign of Abd al-Rahman III.  Established Caliphate and intellectual tradition of Cordoba
1031  Umayyad dynasty collapses
1031- 1086   Anarchy
1085 King Alfonso V1 captures Toledo
1118  Christians capture Zaragossa
1145  Almohad Dynasty come to power
1147  Almohads capture Sevilla and make it the capital of Al Andalus
1212  Moors defeated at the Battle of La Naves de Tolosa by the united armies of Castille, Aragon,  Navarre and Portugal
1232 – 1492 Granada is the only Moorish territory on the Iberian Peninsular
1232  King of Granada is Muhammad 1
1238 – 1358  Construction of the Alhambra palace (Granada)
1238  Valencia re-captured by the Christians
1492  Moorish rule ends with the fall of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella.


Muhammad 570 – 632
Founded the religion of Islam
Promoted the importance of learning and scholarship

Abd al-Rahman 731 – 786
Reigned 756 – 786
Founder of Umayyad dynasty that ruled Iberia for 300 years
The ‘Falcon of Andalus’
Started construction of the Mezquita of Cordoba

Abd al-Rahman III 891 – 961
Reigned 912 – 961
Caliph and greatest Umayyad  ruler
Patron of the arts and fine administrator
Cordoba became the greatest centre of learning in Europe

Al Hakim  unknown – 976
Reigned 961 – 976
Had a library in Cordoba of over 500,000 books
Expanded Cordoba’s mesquita

Alfonso X of Castille 1221- 1284
Nicknamed ‘El Sabio’ (The Learned)
A writer and intellectual
Patronised The School of Translators of Toledo

Abbas Ibn Firnas 810 – 887
Born Ronda
Polymath – scientist, musician , inventor
The first man to try flying scientifically

Abu al-Quasim (Al Zahrawi) 936 – 1013
Born in Cordoba
Father of modern surgery
Wrote a 30 volume medical encyclopedia (Kiab al-Tasrif)
Influenced medicine for 500 years
Designed new surgical instruments and techniques

Al Zarquali (Arzachel) 1028 – 1087
Lived in Toledo
Mathematician, astronomer and inventor
Contributed to the Tables of Toledo
Influenced the re-birth of mathematical astronomy

Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 1126 – 1198
Born Cordoba
‘The Commentator’
Father of secular thought in Western Europe
Intellectual and polymath
Brought Aristotle’s ides of logic and analytical thinking back to the West

Moses Maimonides 1135 – 1204
Born in Cordoba
Jewish scientist and philosopher
Considered the greatest doctor of his time
Greatly influenced by Averroes

Ibn Arabi 1165 – 1240
Born in modern day Murcia
Philosopher and mystic
Wrote some 800 works
Has exerted a huge influence on Islamic spiritual thought


Great Spanish rock music (Fito &Fitipaldis)

Romantic music (Pablo Alborán)

Surrealist art (Joan Miró)

Spain’s greatest ballerina (Tamara Rojo)

Superb guitarist (Paco de Lucía)

Military hero (El Cid)

Flamenco (understanding duende)

Horse riding in Spain (Andalusians)

Stunning building (Alhambra)

Wild life in Spain (the lynx)

Nick Snelling

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  11 Responses to “What did the Moors do for us? a history of the Moors in Spain”

  1. Hi, I find this article full of cliches, the information is probably taken from wikipedia rather than from a proper educated research.

    * we spaniards are not in denial of the moorish presence in spain, we just want to put that period in context and within a recorded history of more than 3000 years (since Tartessus)
    * the moorish were not 800 years in Spain. in most of Spain they were 300 years. And in 90% of our territory they at most were 500 years. From 1212 onwards only the kingdom of Granada remained in moorish hands, but they had to pay Castilla a yearly high tax. they were not anymore sovereign and independent. they were allowed to exist until 1492 when the spanish king and queen decided to end the “grace period”.
    * the moorish did not bring most of what is said they brought to spain. Most of those things were already in spain, brought by romans and byzantines (greeks).
    * the “explendor” of the moorish barely lasted 150 years from the end of the 900s to the end of 1100s (the time prior to the calphate plus the caliphate). before that they had to properly conquer Spain. From 711 to mid 900s rebelions of christians were common and they were virtually at war in the whole peninsula until the Caliphate. Then later, they were at war with themsleves, and some other moorish came to the peninsula and took control. So the moorish period is far from an explendorous and homogeneous piece of history but rather a mess of wars and destruction of the country.
    * the moorish were agresive warriors that destroyed our culture and submitted christians by the sword. They only respected christians because to continue being christians these had to pay a high tax. and the moors wanted that tax, so they were not so happy when christians converted for convenience.

    finally: please foreign people, we love you coming to our country, but please respect us and our history. we are not in denial of anything, if you want moorish, you have got Morocco just aside, but if you decide to come to and stay in Spain we will be very happy to show you our own culture which is 3000 years old.

    best regards

  2. Javier – it was all original work and properly researched and originally published in a quality magazine…

  3. @ Javier, “we spaniards are not in denial of the moorish presence in Spain”. It is difficult to believe that you speak for all Spaniards as one should be careful not assume that their opinion stands for all. The bullet points that follow seem to contradict the initial assertion, taking steps to attempt to challenge the assertions made as to the well-documented contributions of the Moors to Spain in the article Listen, we do well as a country and as a planet only when we embrace truth. No longer will defensive close mindedness stand. The time to face the truth is now!

  4. “spaniards” Don’t fool ur self you are nothing with out that. It is the part your history that makes you special. Or tell us that you very oridinar like the nations in every corner.

  5. Why is it so difficult to respect the fact that Africans were worthy of respect for bringing new knowledge to Europe through Spain. We are all family with an African mother. Have you heard of mitochondrial dna? We were not savage we were and are blessed of ALLAH. We survived the evil treatment of prejudice men because we are the original man. All men came through us.

  6. Do you have a list of your resources? I am doing a paper on this very topic and it would help a lot!

  7. Claire – I am sorry I no longer have my research papers! It was some time ago that I wrote this article and any references have no disappeared into cyberspace! Good luck with your paper…

  8. you know what hes right thanks john your a big help

  9. When the Moors were capture, they added EZ to the back of their names, so we would know who they were

  10. It is very stylish to promote Islam as a religion of peace and as a religion of science and Islamic history and culture as being suppressed, yet superior to and responsible for the rise of Western Civilization.

    Libraries and Population Centralization
    It is also historically inaccurate. Libraries throughout most of Europe were small as cities were also small until later than the development of cities in pre-Islamic Egypt, Iraq, Iran in Moorish Spain. THAT part is true. What is left unsaid is the sheer number of monastic libraries and the size of the collections held by the Catholic Church, preserver (and suppressor) of learning in Europe. Public libraries were an Egyptian achievement taken by the Muslim hordes and dispersed throughout the Muslim-held lands. One thing the Muslim conquerors did not habitually do when capturing lands was to destroy the bulk of the historical, scientific and cultural achievements of those the conquered.

    Percentage of Moorish Control
    The Moors never completed conquest of what is now modern Spain. The mountains hindered further movement into Europe, France in particular. “Christian” resistance varied in intensity and in location of greatest resistance location. The rich possessions of Iberia were jealously held by separate Muslim/Moorish rulers who greedily sought the domains of their neighbors rather than uniting to fight their common enemies. The Muslims in Spain lacked the ability to conquer all of Iberia early on and invited further aid from Africa. Once Yusuf was in Spain, he fought the Muslims that invited him. Javier speaks the truth concerning limits of Moorish control.

    Origins of Spanish Culture and Technology
    Spain inherited much from the Romans and from earlier colonies originating from Greece and the Mediterranean Sea. The Moors did copy 1000s of manuscripts from libraries in Egypt, and Arab seafaring experience (built upon earlier Greek, Roman and Egyptian knowledge of weather, currents, ship construction) provided much navigation information to Iberians less familiar with the ways of the sea they bordered.
    Like the monasteries of Western, Eastern and Northern Europe, the Muslims copied numerous earlier writings from many different languages. Much of the contents of Islamic libraries is now, has always been and always will be copies of the writings of religious zealots, not true scientists/natural philosophers. The greatest amount of volumes in the great libraries of Moorish were, in fact, religious in nature.
    On the other hand, Muslim mathematicians, astronomers and doctors were greatly admired and sponsored. They did produce unique achievements that enrich all the world today. As a whole however, compared to the length of time and the amount of resources available, the scientific and cultural achievements of the Spanish Moors-in conjunction with the entire Muslim region of northern Africa and across Arabia to India, produced miniscule amounts of development in comparison to ancient Rome, ancient Greece, the Phoenicians, Italy during the Renaissance, Germany in the 18th or 19th centuries or USA at any period after its initial 25 years as a nation.
    Compare the advances of ALL Islamic held lands COMBINED from the period 700AD-2015 and find a time or place where any may compare to the advancements of pre-fall of Rome European cultures or post-renaissance European cultures, with the achievements of 3000 years of Chinese history or with 200 years of history in North America. MOST honest comparisons will find evil actions and foul events on both sides of the equation, but severe anti-Islamic tilt concerning achievement. (Tip: to favor a Muslim equation for arguments’ sake, consider the Ottomans to compare versus a western civilization poorly known for scientific accomplishments).

  11. @dsfisher2015… I think the one thing we all fail to recognize is that Egypt, Ethiopia is what had a profound impact in all of europe and the world in general. The greeks came to Africa to study and borrowed all of their ideas and copied everything. Same case in Rome and with the Roman Catholic Church. Europe would be nothing without Africa. So all of what you are saying as far as great achievements only came about through the motherland..Africa. End of story.

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